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when and where to use stepper motor and servo motor

when and where to use stepper motor and servo motor

Stepper motor: greater precision for each displacement

When using DC motors, one of the main problems is the lack of precision in starting and stopping the motor. To deal with this problem, there are motors with independent excitation. We speak of the motor step by step, whose power supply of the inductor is made from an external power source. Thus, to vary its speed it is enough to modify and control the excitation current.

These electromagnetic devices, incremental or rotating, convert digital pulses into mechanical rotation movement.

The proportion of the rotation is proportional to the number of pulses generated; while the rotation speed is related to the frequency of those pulses. The pulses, in short, are defined by a predetermined angle that is powered by a programmable device.

This solution is ideal as long as the inertia of the system is reduced, that is, the acceleration and deceleration time is not long.

In general, the stepper motor is applied in solutions where the precision of the displacements is of great importance: hard disk heads, printers, small sanitary technology, etc.

Advantages of stepper motors:

Greater accuracy in the position and repetition of movements.

Step error below 5%.

Perfect response at start and stop.

Reliable and durable, since there is no contact of brushes.

Angle of rotation proportional to the input pulses.

Wide range of rotation speeds, as it responds to the frequency of digital input pulses.

 

Servomotors: the evolution of the stepper motor

These are stepper motors with integrated control electronics. In this way, these motors allow the control of the position and of the movement, being able to control a turn with the exact degrees.


Currently, they are not widely used at the industrial level due to their high price; although little by little they begin to be commercialized. Among its most common uses are the aeromodelling and robotics.

Among the advantages of servomotors we find:

Saving time in the project development phase, being able to make modifications without additional costs.

Maximum precision

High torsion

Size and cost of maintenance reduced.

Light load.

Linear speed curve, aspect that reduces computational effort.

 

When to use stepper motors and servo motors?

In drives for fast and controlled movements. Here the servomotors offer a constant torque when increasing the speed.

In continuous drives. This is the case of applications that require long periods of work where many stops and starts occur. The stepper motors offer greater precision in these work environments.

In precise drives: in sectors such as industrial automation and robotics, we need exact movements. For this the servo motors are supported by a PLC system that determines the exact degrees of movement and its repetitiveness.

 

Do you have doubts about the selection criteria of an electric motor? Do you need more advice on the properties of stepper motors? Tell us what are the characteristics of your project and we will help you find the most accurate engine.